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Common pests and control of greenhouse vegetables
With the advent of winter, it has reached the busy season of vegetable production and management in the solar greenhouse. The greenhouse vegetables are in a high temperature and high humidity environment, which is especially suitable for the occurrence of pests such as whitefly, aphids and thrips, which poses a great threat to the yield and quality of vegetables. Below, introduce the common pests and control methods in the greenhouse vegetable production in winter, for the reference of farmers.
First, the main pest species and hazard characteristics
1. Whitefly. Greenhouse whitefly can occur for 10 generations a year, and enters the greenhouse to harm vegetables in winter. It mainly harms tomato, cucumber, eggplant and other solanaceous vegetables. The adults and larvae absorb the juice of vegetable plants. The leaves of the damaged vegetables are chlorotic, yellowing and wilting, and finally lead to death. In addition, adults and larvae can also secrete a large amount of honeydew, contaminating the leaves and fruits of vegetables, causing coal pollution.
2. Aphids. The aphids that harm greenhouse vegetables mainly include melon, soybean meal and peach aphid. 20 to 30 generations can occur in a year. The aphid clusters suck the plant juice on the back and tender stems of the leaves with a sucking mouthparts, causing the leaves to turn yellow, curl, and deformed and even die. In addition, aphids also transmit viral diseases, which is extremely harmful.
3. Hummer. Hummer mainly harms melon crops, eggplant, legumes and other vegetables. The larvae are yellow and the adults are brownish yellow. It occurs around 15 generations a year. The thrips absorb the juice of young leaves, young shoots, flowers and young melons. The damaged leaves are grayish white, gradually turn yellow and white, and the damaged young shoots and flowers become black and fade, hardening and shrinking, which seriously affects growth.
4. Red spider. The red spiders that occur in greenhouse vegetables in winter are mainly cinnabar leafhoppers and two-spotted spider mites, which can occur for about 20 generations a year. Under high temperature and dry conditions, the temperature is more than 30 ° C, the humidity is greater than 70% is not conducive to occur, the old leaves are heavier when the nitrogen fertilizer is too much. The red spider sucks the juice on the back of the leaf with a sucking mouthpiece and forms a mesh. The damaged leaves are chlorotic, with small white spots and dry leaves.
Second, prevention and treatment methods
1. Agricultural control. First of all, in the field after the harvest of vegetables, the leaves and leaves of the field are removed in time, and destroyed in a centralized manner to reduce the number of insect populations. Secondly, during the period from March to November, during the greenhouse flood season, a 30-mesh insect net was set up at the greenhouse vent to prevent pests from entering the greenhouse.
2. Physical control. Using the phototaxis of pests, swatches can be hung in the greenhouse to trap pests. For example, applying oil on a yellow plate can trap whitefly. The mites are evasive to the silver-gray, and can be used to repel the mites at the air outlet of the greenhouse or around the greenhouse entrance channel.
3. Chemical control. Spraying with 10% imidacloprid can effectively prevent the harm of greenhouse whitefly and aphids. In addition, it can also be used to control whitefly and aphids with acetamiprid. The control of the thrips can be carried out by spraying with 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 1500 times, and can also be controlled by high-efficiency cypermethrin or aktai. The spider mites can be sprayed with 1.8% Nongke emulsifiable concentrate 2000 times or Aifuding emulsifiable concentrate 3000 times, sprayed once every 7 to 10 days, and sprayed 2 to 3 times.